Cloning is creating genetic copies, several people with the same genes. In plants cloning is simple and plain. In mammals, cloning, however unusual. Naturally occurs only when identical twins are born. In recent decades, however, researchers have learned much about how to handle eggs and early embryos that they have been able to develop two different methods to artificially create cloned animals.
The first method is based on doing IVF and then cleaves the early embryo in two pieces. The two parts are then inserted in respective foster mother, and when the young are born, they are genetically identical. They have created “artificial” identical twins. This method has more than 20 years been used in livestock breeding, including in Australia.
The second method makes it possible to create genetic copies of already bred animals. The first animals born after such “cloning of adult” was the famous sheep Dolly. This happened in 1997. When in the general debate today talking about cloning mean you almost always cloning of adults, that is, the techniques used to make Dolly.
How similar is cloned individuals?
Cloned individuals will have almost all genes in common with their “parent”. But genes do not determine everything. Both humans and animals formed by a complex interplay between genes and environment. That means everything from the fetal environment in the womb of the foods kids eat and the treatment it receives from his parents and from other animals in the herd will affect the individual’s various properties – both the physical and the mental / spiritual.
In addition is actually cloned animals do not exact genetic copies of each other. For cell nucleus contains not quite all the individual genes. A small percentage of the genes sitting in something called the cell’s mitochondria. These inherits a cloned individual from the donor of the egg, not from the donor of the cell nucleus. Thus, there may be some but very little genetic difference between the new and the individual who donated the cell nucleus.
With cloning, one can get a nearly identical genetic copy of the body’s physical fundamentals. But not a copy of the environment, which determines how the individual is then developed on this basis.
What do the laws and regulations on cloning humans?
1 April 2005 a new law entered into force unequivocally banning cloning whole human beings (reproductive cloning). However, it is permitted under certain circumstances to create cloned human embryos, which it then uses to create embryonic stem cells (therapeutic cloning).
Similar laws exist in many other Western countries. The UN has repeatedly failed to work out resolutions condemning cloning of the entire people because of disagreement on resolutions at the same time condemning therapeutic cloning or not.
In many Asian countries are experiencing is not the same ethical issues surrounding these technologies in Western Europe and the United States. Researchers in China and Korea has therefore been able to go further than any other to make embryonic stem cells from cloned human embryos.
There is another interesting topic related to this topic, called “Human- Animal Hybrids” watch that video from this link. – Human- Animal Hybrids