Cyborgs: are they among us?

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A cyborg is an organism with both artificial (machine) and biological components. The term “cyborg” was coined by NASA scientists, Nathan Kline and Manfred Clynes in a flight document written in 1960 that discussed the potential benefits of a human machine / hybrid that could work in outer space.In fiction and popular culture cyborgs are often depicted as “half-man half-machine” with robots or bionic plants, as RoboCop from the 1987 film of the same name, or TV program in 1970, The Six Million Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman. Cyborgs are sometimes confused with androids, robots that are designed to look like people.

The ability of modern medicine has caused many to rethink the definition of a cyborg to include mammals that are equipped with repair techniques that help to replicate the natural systems of the body, such as a person with a pacemaker or a retinal or cochlear implants. Although the average prosthesis is not covered by the definition of cyborg technology, a prosthesis that uses sensors to replicate the natural progression of a person, such as a C-Leg system is a program considered modern cyborg.

Cyborg programs that can improve human function than the natural abilities of the body is the subject of controversy. For example, the tag Development Rio-Frequency Identification (RFID), which is about to become a program cyborg prolific, is a micro technology implanted in a human or an animal potentially store information. Opponents to a point this technology for the potential invasion of privacy that could arise with such a device; It can be an application for human and animal tracking.

Another controversial cyborg application involves the use of military tactical combat insects and animals. For example, the US Department of Defense, has begun to explore the possibility of implanting insects for surveillance purposes pupae data sensors, as well as sharks implanted with cyborg-like sensors to detect explosives underwater.

1985 essay by Donna Haraway, “Cyborg Theory: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the late twentieth century” held a positive view of the cyborg in the context of feminist theory. Haraway theorized that metaphor concept cyborg means that exceeds the historical limitations and patriarchal nature of its kind.